Monument record CDD 003 - Coddenham Baylham Roman Site

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Summary

Scheduled Monument - Large Roman settlement, identified with COMBRETOVIVM, see details.

Location

Grid reference Centred TM 1131 5298 (1061m by 1411m)
Map sheet TM15SW
Civil Parish CODDENHAM, MID SUFFOLK, SUFFOLK

Map

Type and Period (6)

Full Description

Large settlement. Identified with "COMBRETOVIVM" (S1).
Investigated in 1823 by Sir William Middleton after discovery of the main N- S road by labourers `employed in draining'. Road traced S to river Gipping (and S of ford - see BAY 014). To the W of this road, near the river Gipping, a grey Roman urn containing human ashes was found circa 2 feet below surface, and close to it a smaller red pot and a double bronze mirror, 2.5 inches in diameter, with head of Nero on one side and a general addressing soldiers on the other (British Museum)(S19). Further search showed dense scatter of finds, up to 3 feet thick, including coins (C1-C4), samian and other pottery, brick, tile, oyster shell, slag. A wall was uncovered, running nearly E-W, about 30 yards long and 2 feet thick (S1)(S2)(R1)(R4)(R6).
Section cut across road (on N side of road from Baylham Mill to Norwich Road), rammed gravel with `ramp' on each side, pottery, samian, decorated tile (S3)(S4). Further section of road and adjacent occupation at (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s) (approximately); road 32 feet wide, sealed early Rom pits, suggested construction date around AD 70 (S5). Finds included two gold coins (Nero,AD 64-66 and Vespasian, AD 72, see entry in R Bland 2010 for full details), bronze coins (Vespasian - Constantinian (mid C4), samian, west stow and colour coated pottery, bronze dolphin brooch, bracelet, pins, ring, ligula, nail cleaner with human head, toilet implements, lion head ornament, iron knife, shears, styli, chisels, key, glass vessel fragments, bone counter, pins(S6). Also terra nigra platters with stamps (AD 55 onwards (S7).

Various surface finds: pottery (Samian, rough cast beaker, West Stow type) and bronze needle from circa (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s) (S8), Antoninianus of Carausius (RIC 855)(S9), AS of Faustina (RIC 1395) from (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s) (S10), sestertius of Philip I from (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s)(spoil heap)(S11). C1 pottery found during trials for gravel (?(see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s))(S12).
Series of 7 pits and ditches with Rom and Sax pottery found while cutting trench for water main in 1958 (S13)(S16)(R11). Notes and plans at IPSMG and on fiche (S17). Lower stone of puddingstone quern found in hedge near Baylham House (S14). Air photographs show junction of two roads with complex area of pits, ditches, etc. Two multiple ditched forts - see CDD 016 - in S part of area. Area also includes cropmarks CDD 012. Extent of occupation to N not defined - scheduled area includes CDD 014, coins. Finds extend beyond 003 to E and SE - see CDD 009.
Also IA (snaffle bit, further material CDD 009) and Sax pottery. Six Rom coins found in area during sugar beet hoeing and retained by finders. Shown to Basil Brown for indentification: (1) Denarius of Trajan C2; (2) Commodus C2; (3) Constantius Chlorus C4; (4) Constantine II C3; (5) Valens C4; (6) Allectus C3 (S15).
1926: Information from amongst notes in file marked Combretovium at Ipswich Museum, lists excavation by Miss Saumarez in 1926. No further details.
Also see SAM file.

Extensive cropmarks of a roman settlement and road system. The cropmarks of the road system are visible for nearly 1km, with two forks in the road centred on TM11295304 to TM10945324 also visible, the road leads to the Roman fort to the south (CDD 016). The roads appear mostly as surfaced routes with extensive ditches along at least one side. Little settlement activity is identifiable along the roads, although there are areas of extensive pits, quarries and ditches, though no buildings are immediately indentfiable from the aerial photographs. Helen Saunders (Essex County Council), February 2014. (S21-S25)

Sources/Archives (6)

  • <S21> Vertical Aerial Photograph: Vertical Aerial Photography. OS/75319/39-40, 5-Jul-75 (EHA).
  • <S22> Oblique Aerial Photograph: English Heritage Archive. Oblique Aerial Photograph. TM1152/64-65, 9-Jun-80 (EHA).
  • <S23> Oblique Aerial Photograph: English Heritage Archive. Oblique Aerial Photograph. TM1152/80 27031_028.tiff (EHA).
  • <S24> Oblique Aerial Photograph: English Heritage Archive. Oblique Aerial Photograph. TM1053/28-29, 4-Jun-80, (EHA).
  • <S25> Oblique Aerial Photograph: English Heritage Archive. Oblique Aerial Photograph. TM1053/40, 24-Jul-92 (EHA).
  • <S26> Unpublished document: Martin, E. A. and Plouviez, J.. 1978. Prehistoric and Roman Cropmark Sites in Suffolk.

Finds (0)

Protected Status/Designation

Related Monuments/Buildings (0)

Related Events/Activities (1)

Record last edited

May 9 2018 3:12PM

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