Monument record HXN 001 - Lake Sediments at Hoxne Brickworks, Hoxne, (Palaeolithic)

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Major Palaeolithic site producing flint artefacts and animal bones from brickearth deposits (representing a silted-up lake) in both commercial workings and archaeological excavations, from the late C18 onwards. Partly SSSI.


Grid reference Centred TM 1753 7665 (556m by 322m)
Map sheet TM17NE


Type and Period (1)

Full Description

Hoxne is an important site for understanding the Lower Palaeolithic occupation of northern Europe.

The sequence at Hoxne are of particular importance because they contain abundant palaeoenvironmental evidence and also a rich Palaeolithic archaeological record. Despite the long history of research at Hoxne, it remains unclear how the primary context human industries relate to the environmental record and the correlation of this part of the succession with the marine isotope sequence is uncertain. The current research has focussed on these issues as part of a wider investigation of human presence during MIS 11 under the auspices of the Ancient Human Occupation of Britain Project. Since the discovery at Hoxne of Lower Palaeolithic handaxes by Frere (1800), the site has been the subject nof several investigations, providing often radical reinterpretations of previous work. This work has focussed on two pits, either side of the Hoxne to Eye road. The Old Brick Pit to the east of the road was the subject of the earliest investigations, and these were supplemented by work in the Oakley Park Pit when this was first opened in the mid-19th century, (S8).

The site has yielded numerous handaxes, including twisted ovate handaxes, pointed handaxes, and various flakes and scrapers, divided into upper and lower assemblages, (S11).

1797: Finds of handaxes recorded by Frere, (S1), showing the antiquity of humans.
c.1860: Investigations by Prestwich, (S2).
1895-1896: Geomorphological Survey by Carlton Reid, (S3)
1924-1926, 1934: Investigations by Reid Moir, (S4, S5)
1951: Investigations by West and McBurney, (S15)
1968: Casual Observation of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic (See HXN 002) items, (S7)
1971-1974, 1978: Excavation by Wymer and the University of Chicago, (S6)
2000-2003: Excavations by Ashton and the British Museum, (S8).

Also SSI.

See other sources.

Sources/Archives (21)

  • <S1> Article in serial: Prestwich, J.. 1860. On the occurrence of flint-implements, associated with the remains of animals of extinct species in beds of a late geological period, in France at Amiens and Abbeville, and in England at Hoxne.
  • <S2> Article in serial: Frere, J,. 1800. Account of flint weapons discovered at Hoxne in Suffolk.
  • <S3> Bibliographic reference: Evans, J., Morse, E., Reid, C., Ridley, E.P., Ridley, H.N.. 1860. The relation of Palaeolithic man to the glacial epoch relation of Palaeolithic man to the glacial epoch. Report of the British.
  • <S4> Article in serial: Moir J R. 1926. The Silted-up Lake of Hoxne and its contained Flint Implements.
  • <S5> Article in serial: Moir J R. 1934. Lower Palaeolithic Man at Hoxne, England.
  • <S6> Bibliographic reference: Singer, R., Gladfelter, B.G., Wymer, J.J.. 1993. The Lower Paleolithic Site at Hoxne, England. Site at Hoxne, England.
  • <S7> Article in serial: Owles, E. J. and N. Smedley. 1968. Archaeology in Suffolk, 1968. PSIAH, 1968, XXXI.2, pp. 188–201..
  • <S8> Article in serial: Ashton et al, Kirsty E.H. Penkmane, G. Russell Coopef. 2008. New evidence for complex climate change in MIS 11 from Hoxne, Suffolk, UK.
  • <S9> Digital archive: Wymer, J.J.. 1999. The Lower Palaeolithic Occupation of Britain (TERPs) The Lower Palaeolithic Occupation of Britain (TERPS). 22675.
  • <S10> Article in serial: White, M.J. & Ashton, N; Bridgland.. 2019. Twisted Handaxes in Middle Pleistocene Britain and their Implications for Regional-scale Cultural Variation and the Deep History of Acheulean Hominin Groups.
  • <S11> Bibliographic reference: Wymer, J.J.. 1985. Palaeolithic Sites of East Anglia.
  • <S12> Bibliographic reference: 1911. Victoria County History, Suffolk (VCH).
  • <S13> Unpublished document: Suffolk Archaeological Service. Parish file. Parish file: Various.
  • <S14> Excavation archive: Wymer, J.J.. 1988. JJ Wymer Excavation Archive. Wymer J J, November 1988.
  • <S15> Article in serial: West, R.G., McBurney. 1954. The Quaternary deposits at Hoxne, Suffolk and their archaeology.
  • <S16> Article in serial: Martin, E.A., Pendleton, C. & Plouviez, J.. 2004. Archaeology in Suffolk 2003. XXXX (4).
  • <S17> Web Page: AHOB. Ahob Website, (Hoxne Entry).
  • <S18> Article in serial: Martin, E.A., Pendleton, C. & Plouviez, J.. 2003. Archaeology in Suffolk 2002. XXXX (3).
  • <S19> Article in serial: Martin, E.A., Pendleton, C., Plouviez, J., Thomas, G. & Geake, H.. 2001. Archaeology in Suffolk 2000. XXXX (1).
  • <S20> Digital archive: Historic England. National Record Of the Historic Environment.
  • <S21> Article in serial: Ashton, N. Davis, R. Kirsty E.H. Penkmane, G. Russell Coopef. 2021. Cultural Mosaics, Social Structure, and Identity: The Acheulean threshold in Europe.

Finds (14)

Protected Status/Designation

  • None recorded

Related Monuments/Buildings (0)

Related Events/Activities (10)

Record last edited

Jun 22 2021 1:16PM

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