Monument record EXG 012 - Exning Villa

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Exning Villa complex, excavated 1904, 1958 & 1959.


Grid reference Centred TL 612 675 (100m by 100m)
Map sheet TL66NW


Type and Period (6)

Full Description

In a card index of Suffolk sites at Cambridge University Museum there is an entry for Exning Villa, saying that the site was excavated by the museum curator with J & C Jennings in 1904. As well as pottery, a geometric mosaic was found, presumably from the same building (S1)(S4)(R1). The same area was re-investigated with trial trenches in 1958 and fully excavated in 1959 before deep ploughing (previously under orchard). Early (C1 to early C2?) Rom features comprised ditches, post holes and pits, described by the excavator as including an "irregular hutment" but not certainly a building. A timber `aisled building' comprised two aisle post rows 31m by 6m wide with one aisle wall of small posts 3m to SW. Suggested construction in C2, replaced in masonry after AD 270. Included painted wall plaster. The masonry re-build took place in stages and incorporated the timber structure. Bath suite added to NW end of building. One room contained tassellated floor (red) and the semi-circular mosaic lifted previously. The latest addition was a heated room at the SE end. Building destroyed by fire, probably towards mid C4 - originally dated early C4 by lack of Constantinian coins, however, pottery includes Oxford (one piece), Hadham and a little shell-gritted ware. Coins (13) range Domitian (AD 81-86) late C3 plus one Valentinian (S4)(R6).
The report on excavations (S4) does not include any reference to our site, EXG 013; if EXG 013 is correctly recorded it might account for the presence of later C4 material?

Sources/Archives (13)

  • <R1> (No record type): PCAS, 1906, 210 (T M Hughes).
  • <S1> (No record type): Cambridge University Museum, card index for Suffolk, Exning.
  • <M1> Unpublished document: Suffolk Archaeological Service. Parish file. Parish file: Copies (S1)(S4) & (S5).
  • <S2> (No record type): Cambs CC Archaeological Record card 1975.
  • <R2> (No record type): J Roman Stud, 49, 1959, 123.
  • <R3> (No record type): Clarke R R, East Anglia, 121.
  • <S3> Index: OS. OS Card. OS, card TL66NW3.
  • <S4> (No record type): Webster C J, Ernest Greenfield's Excavations at Exning Roman Villa, PCAS, 76, 1987, 41-66.
  • <R4> (No record type): Collingwood R G & Richmond I, Archaeology of Roman Britain, 1969, 147-8.
  • <S5> (No record type): J Roman Stud, 50, 1960, 228.
  • <R5> (No record type): PCAS 62, 1969, 29-34 (C C Taylor).
  • <R6> (No record type): NMR, Excavation archive, Greenfield E, microfiche.
  • <S6> Digital archive: Historic England. National Record Of the Historic Environment.

Finds (17)

Protected Status/Designation

  • None recorded

Related Monuments/Buildings (0)

Related Events/Activities (2)

Record last edited

Sep 27 2021 11:05AM

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