Monument record PKM 005 - Roman Camp N of Pakenham windmill (Rom)

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Summary

Roman triple-ditched fort and large settlement (part of). Part Scheduled.

Location

Grid reference Centred TL 932 698 (220m by 204m) (Centred on)
Map sheet TL96NW
Civil Parish PAKENHAM, ST EDMUNDSBURY, SUFFOLK

Map

Type and Period (16)

Full Description

Roman triple-ditched fort and large settlement (part of).
"Roman coins occasionally." (S1) (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s).
In 1945, Flt Lt D N Riley, RAF, flew over the area and sketched the triple ditched system surrounding the fort and showed the sketch to Group Captain Livock, mentioning that he thought it was probably C1. Livock contacted Basil Brown, who fieldwalked the area in November 1945, confirmed the existence of the ditches and reported that the area was covered with Roman pottery. At this date, only the sketch was available but later, air photographs were taken. Entrances could be seen on the S and E sides (S2)(S3).
In December 1950 during digging of a pipeline trench through Ixworth and Pakenham, a Roman wall 4.5 feet wide x 9.5 feet long made of rammed chalky clay with an opus signinum base was revealed at (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s). In black earth was found Samian ware (plain and decorated), part of a mortarium, an amphora and pieces of rusticated ware (S4)(S3).
Mr Bryant, the farmer, was ploughing in February 1951 in the field to the W of the newly found wall at (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s) and found remains of a Roman wall. He gave Basil Brown permission to trial the site and 20 feet of wall running N to S was excavated with a flint wall running from it E to W towards the remains of the wall found in December 1950. Finds included box tiles, pottery, Samian ware, blue glass, bronze objects, 20 large nails and pieces of wattle and daub. To the S of this wall, (100 feet away) was found further building debris and an area of packed flints or stones described as a "courtyard" (S5)(S3).
December 1957: IPSMG (with Norwich Museum (R Clarke & C Green)) obtained permission to dig a trial trench across the triple ditch system around the fort at (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s). Finds included pottery with Samian, from C1 onwards together with animal bones (domestic)(S6)(S3)(S7)(R3).
Various finds had been recorded in this area over a number of years, as follows:-
During the erection of a signpost at the corner of Fen Road, workmen found pottery and bones. At (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s), farmer, dupondius of Domitian, slag, portion of mortarium, 1960. (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s) a silver coin, Julia Domna found. Field near signpost, Samian coins and nails found, (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s) - April 1951. (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s) - Antoninianus of Julia Soaemias, 1955, Basil Brown (S7). (see 'Not to be published on web' tab for finder/s and/or findspot/s) approximately, buff and red ware and Samian from possible Rom road ditch, circa 1957 (S7). In 1961 Basil Brown found a mortarium from within the fort area.
The site was scheduled in 1962, S of Fen Lane, extended W up to A143 in 1969. An extension to the E (to include PKM 007) was proposed in 1982 (S8).
1951. Painted wall plaster was found associated with the aisled building and elsewhere. In the E half of the excavated area were two pottery kilns which had tongued pedestals and tile used within the clay structure. Products were predominantly C3 colour coated indented beakers plus other fine wares; the whole industry is very similar to Grimstone End (PKM 028). One well (not completely excavated) and numerous pits etc., produced a wide range of finds. Other industrial evidence included bronze working debris and iron slag concentrations. The date range spans 60's AD to end of C4 (from large group of coins and Samian evidence)(S9).
1962: part Scheduled - see (S8).
Nov 1969: Scheduled area extended (S8).
1978: A triple ditched fort, internal dimenstions c.160m by 180m seen as cropmark (S11).
1983: Further extensions (esp extra-mural settlement area to E) to Scheduled area (and de-scheduling of new road lines - see below) proposed for consideration under MPP - MPP not carried out so remains un-scheduled (and bypass remains scheduled - March 2010).
1984-5 : construction of the Ixworth by-pass necessitated excavation of a diagonal strip across this area of the fort. The three fort ditches were sectioned on the S and E sides. There were few other features or finds (one bronze cuirass hinge) relating to the military occupation which was probably short-lived. Civilian settlement evidence was densest and stratified in the area of intersection of the two main Roman roads visible on the APs (to theS of the building evidence recorded in 1950 pipeline). A series of post built structures were identified including a circular structure post-dating the military phase and an aisled building with clay floor and ovens, mainly dating C1-C2. A small square sunken timber structure which collapsed at the end of the Roman period was possibly a tower and associated with water storage or supply via a ditch containing traces of a pipe. Part of a sunken probable hypocaust structure, flint walled with tile courses, was found on the edge of the excavation in the same area as building remains identified during ploughing in ??? (bit missing here! - see excavation report).
The fort extends N to include modern bungalows and gardens in PKM 002. The W boundary of the fort is undefined - either under the A143 or in fields to the W. The settlement covers a much larger area - N to the river (PKM 002), W of the A143 (PKM 026, 037) and E along a Roman road (PKM 007 area) to Grimstone End (PKM 028).
Also Neo & IA.
Part Scheduled.
Excavations 1984 (S10)

Sources/Archives (24)

  • <S1> (No record type): Smith A per SAU (Plouviez J), finds reports, 1989, ill.
  • <S1> (No record type): Warren J, PSIA, 1, 1853, 76.
  • <R1> (No record type): Clarke R R, East Anglia.
  • <M1> (No record type): Excavation archive:.
  • <S1> Photograph: CUCAP. CUCAP aerial photograph. CUCAP, AP CJM 99, July 1979.
  • <M1> Photograph: CUCAP. CUCAP aerial photograph. AP: CUCAP CJM 99.
  • <S1> Index: OS. OS Card. OS, card TL96NW1, 1985.
  • <M1> Unpublished document: Suffolk Archaeological Service. Parish file. Parish file: (S12).
  • <R2> (No record type): St Joseph, J Roman Stud, 1977.
  • <M2> (No record type): SAM file:.
  • <S2> Unpublished document: Basil Brown. Basil Brown Archive. Brown B,III,22-22b,63,109;VIII,5-7;XII,26,27,112-116;XXXIV,5;LXVII,9-12 LXX,4,23;XCI,92;XCVI,50;card.
  • <M3> Unpublished document: Basil Brown. Basil Brown Archive. Basil Brown archive: volumes, card index, maps.
  • <R3> Bibliographic reference: Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. Archaeol in Suff, 1957, PSIA, 27, 1957, (3), 184.
  • <S3> (No record type): IPSMG, plans& list, M103, M105, M127, M131.
  • <M4> Photograph: CUCAP. CUCAP aerial photograph. APs: SAU AGH 12,13,14,15,16, AJL 13-17, ALM 8, BEZ 13,14; CUCAP FE 31-33,.
  • <S4> Unpublished document: Basil Brown. Basil Brown Archive. Brown B,III,23,51,65-8,84,106,107,109;XXX,6,22;LXX,24,25,34,41-3;XCI,77 78,131,132;XCVI,50,51;XC,BIN.
  • <M5> (No record type): BXY 95-97, BXG 92.
  • <S5> Unpublished document: Basil Brown. Basil Brown Archive. Brown B,III,25,30,51,66,68,104-8,132,134;XXX,6,7,22;LXX,42,43,44;XCI, 131,132;map 52a.
  • <S6> Unpublished document: Basil Brown. Basil Brown Archive. Brown B, XIX,139;XXX,7;LXXII,95-7.
  • <S7> Index: Ipswich Museum. IPSMG card. IPSMG, cards 1955, 957-152, 957-188, 957-182(?).
  • <S8> Unpublished document: Department of the Environment. Scheduling information.
  • <S9> (No record type): SAU Excavation archive.
  • <S10> Article in serial: Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History. Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History. PSIAH 36 (1) 1985 p52.
  • <S11> Unpublished document: Martin, E. A. and Plouviez, J.. 1978. Prehistoric and Roman Cropmark Sites in Suffolk.

Finds (83)

Protected Status/Designation

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Related Events/Activities (0)

Record last edited

Jul 27 2020 9:54PM

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