Monument record BRD 138 - Post medieval flint mines in Forest Block 3098

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Summary

Evidence of post medieval flint mining survives as earthworks. It has been identified on the ground and is visible on aerial photographs and on imagery from a 2015 lidar survey. A variety of pits and gullies are evident. It is one of several such sites recorded in the area; for example, see BRD 139 in the plantation block to the southwest. Several banks have also been recorded.

Location

Grid reference Centred TL 794 839 (354m by 463m) (Centred on)
Map sheet TL78SE
Civil Parish BRANDON, FOREST HEATH, SUFFOLK

Map

Type and Period (4)

Full Description

1991: well preserved group of hollows/gullies from former flint mining activities on E side of Bury Road. In at least three forms including some large circular and gulley types (S2).
1996: for rapid survey results see (S1). Separate from another group adjoining Bury Road to N (BRD 136) and from Lingheath mines. May relate to further mines across road - see BRD 139. Part of larger area defined by Clarke - see BRD 095.

1998: Rapid earthwork survey identified that the whole area was extensively disturbed by pits varying from larger (60m diameter, 7m deep) roughly oval shape, to smaller rectangular pits (15m wide and lengths of 20m+, 2-3m deep), large spoil tips between pits. Possibly 19th century flint mines/quarries. A bank was recorded near the souther edge of the compartment, 2m wide and 0.3m high, appears to be marked on 1980 OS map, represents part of the southern boundary of Two Chimney Covert as marked on 1928 OS map. A second bank was recorded in the NW corner, 5m wide 0.8m high, runs for 20m, probably a spoil tip from quarrying. A large pit was recorded in the SW corner of compartment 3099 which is probably associated with excavations in compartment 3098. A large pit was also recorded in compartment 3097, is marked on 1928 OS map and is probably a marl or gravel pit (S3). (Map area redefined 2018 to include large pit in SE of compartment)

HBSMR mapped area redefined (May 2010) to agree with 1940s (pre FC planting) aerial photograph which clearly shows area of mines to S (heath), area to N less clear (area of 19th century woodland) so mines may not extend this far.

The post medieval flint mines described above are visible as earthworks on aerial photographs (S4-S5) and on imagery from a 2015 lidar survey (S6). They have been mapped by extent, and the monument polygon defining the site has been expanded accordingly. It is notable that a considerable proportion of the earthworks consists of gullies, rather than individual pits. Many of the gullies have pits along their base or, more most obviously, at one or both ends. Similar features are evident at other post medieval flint mining sites, including BRD 136 to the north, and at Bromehill flint mines in Norfolk (NHER 31296). No mines have been identified in the northernmost portion of the site, although earlier surveys have included this area. The lidar and aerial photographs do show that the ground is uneven here, perhaps denoting partially levelled earthworks, and/or quarrying of different materials. A bank visible on the lidar to the south of the site and recorded by the earlier survey (S3) is depicted on the Ordnance Survey 1st edition map (S7) and has not been mapped. The same survey also recorded a bank to the north which was not identified.
S. Tremlett (Norfolk Historic Environment Service), 28th June 2017.

Sources/Archives (8)

  • <S1> (No record type): SAU, Pendleton C, Flint Mines: Rapid Survey, ms, October 1996.
  • <M1> Unpublished document: Suffolk Archaeological Service. Parish file. Parish file: (S1)(S2).
  • <S2> (No record type): SAU, Pendleton C, Site Report, December 1991.
  • <S3> Unpublished document: Pendleton, C. and Sommers, M.. 1998. Rapid Earthwork Identification Survey for Forest Enterprise. p21, map 8.
  • <S4> Vertical Aerial Photograph: Vertical aerial photograph. RAF/CPE/UK/2021 RS 4061-4062 21-APR-1947 (HEA Original Print).
  • <S5> Vertical Aerial Photograph: Vertical aerial photograph. RAF/540/1733 V 0004-0005 01-NOV-1955 (HEA Original Print).
  • <S6> LIDAR Airborne Survey: LIDAR airborne survey. LIDAR Wangford Forest Research 0.5m DTM 17-JUL-2015 (BNG Project, FC England, Fugro Geospatial).
  • <S7> Map: Ordnance Survey. Ordnance Survey Map. Ordnance Survey 1st edition 6 inch map.

Finds (0)

Protected Status/Designation

  • None recorded

Related Monuments/Buildings (2)

Related Events/Activities (2)

Record last edited

May 11 2018 10:30AM

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