Monument record IPS 018 - Warren Livingstone Pit, Bramford Road, (Sproughton Road), Ipswich, (IAS 7905).

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Palaeolithic implements, including cordate flint hand-axes, and 4 leaf shaped implements. Also Neolithic pottery, including rim of Peterborough ware, portion of retouched grey flint axe and part of discoid hammer.


Grid reference Centred TM 139 454 (514m by 164m)
Map sheet TM14NW


Type and Period (1)

Full Description

c. 1918-1930: Investigations by J. R. Moir. Palaeolithic implements, including cordate flint hand-axes, blade flakes, crusted flake, gouge flake, tongue-shaped implements, Mousterian (Bout coupé?) hand-axes and flakes, Solutrean leaf shaped implement, various flake implements, (S1-S3).

The recovery of artefacts by suction pump makes making definite claims of direct associations at Bramford road difficult. There is a large collection of handaxes of varying condition as well as several hundred flakes, Levallois products and a number of Upper Palaeolithic types including EUP (LRJ rather than Solutrean) leaf points. Pettitt and white (S11) argue convincingly, that all British examples claimed to be Solutrean are in fact Earlier Leaf points. There is also a Gravettian Font-Robert point and a Late Glacial bruised blade. Dating of the Middle Palaeolithic examples is complex and has been described in some detail by White and Jacobi. Moir (1930) believed that the Middle Palaeolithic objects came from a peaty loam below a 5-6m OD terrace of the River Gipping on the strength of his observations at the nearby site at Constantine road and more importantly on the loam adhering to the Middle Palaeolithic artefacts. The fauna is very limited, but includes Mammoth, Woolly Rhinoceros and Reindeer. This is consistent with a generalised Devensian age but the mixed and derived character of the collection means that they could be Devensian or could be older. Following Moir’s description of the stratigraphy it can be said that the Palaeolithic artefacts came from between 4 and 5m OD. The limited fauna suggests cool, steppic grassland. Pollen of Betula, Pinus and Alnus does not contradict this, (S4)

c. 1918-1962: other monitoring. Neolithic pottery, including rim of Peterborough ware, portion of retouched grey flint axe and part of discoid hammer. Bronze age urn, fragments of very coarse, gritty red ware with vertical incised lines. Found in the Warren Livingstone sand and gravel pit, now disused, and as of 2016 residential properties now on site, (S1-S3).

See also (S5-S12)

Depth data from (S5, S6).

Sources/Archives (19)

  • --- Unpublished document: IPSMG. Ipswich Museum Extension Books.
  • <S1> Index: OS. OS Card. OS, card TM14NW9.
  • <S2> Index: Ipswich Museum. IPSMG card. 1933-57, 1933-58, 192-131, 1934-123 (a+b+c), 1936-280, 1934-60, 1944-107, 1935-235, 1952-139.
  • <S2> Index: Ipswich Museum. IPSMG card. 1933-14, 1936-93,1937-217 (A+B), 1935-46, 1936-146,1935-236, 1935-237, 1931-18, 1932-200, 1933-138.
  • <S2> Index: Ipswich Museum. IPSMG card. 1932-63, 1931-211, 962-235, 962-230, 1949-126B.
  • <S3> Index: Suffolk Archaeology Unit. 1974. SAU index card and Archive.
  • <S4> Unpublished document: Cutler, Hannah. 2013. Understanding Late Middle Palaeolithic Neandertal Landscape-use during Short-Term Occupations in Britain.
  • <S5> Bibliographic reference: Wymer, J.J.. 1985. Palaeolithic Sites of East Anglia. Pg. 213-216.
  • <S6> Article in serial: Moir J R. 1930. Ancient Man in the Gipping—Orwell Valley, Suffolk.
  • <S7> Bibliographic reference: Roe, Derek.. 1981. The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Periods in Britain..
  • <S8> Bibliographic reference: Tyldesley, Joyce.. 1987. The Bout Coupé Handaxe, A Typological Problem..
  • <S9> Article in serial: White, M and Jacobi, R.. 2002. Two Sides to Every Story: Bout Coupé Handaxes Revisited.
  • <S10> Article in serial: White, M.J. & Pettitt. 2011. The British Late Middle Palaeolithic: An Interpretative Synthesis of Neanderthal Occupation at the Northwestern Edge of the Pleistocene World.
  • <S11> Bibliographic reference: Pettitt, P.B. & White, M.J.. 2012. The British Palaeolithic: Human Societies at the Edge of the Pleistocene World.
  • <S12> Index: Suffolk County Council Archaeological Service. 1974. Ipswich Archaeological Survey Card Index (digital version)..
  • <S13> Digital archive: Wymer, J.J.. 1999. The Lower Palaeolithic Occupation of Britain (TERPs) The Lower Palaeolithic Occupation of Britain (TERPS). 22736.
  • <S14> Bibliographic reference: Billington, L, P.. 2016. Lithic Scatters and Landscape Occupation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic: A Case Study from Eastern England.. P 197.
  • <S15> Digital archive: Jacobi, R.. 2014. Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Lithic Artefact (PaMELA) database. 257, 1608, 5345, 5349, 5352, 5354, 5356, 5360, 5362, 5365, 5367.
  • <S16> Digital archive: Historic England. National Record Of the Historic Environment.

Finds (23)

Protected Status/Designation

  • None recorded

Related Monuments/Buildings (0)

Related Events/Activities (2)

Record last edited

May 5 2021 4:06PM

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